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PRINTING AND PUBLISHING TERMS : A Thesaurus for Use in Eagles Bar Pullover Hoodie Double Purple Rare Book and Special Collections Cataloguing

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Note: This text was electronically created from the introduction to the print version, to accompany and provide historical context to the database of thesaurus terms. Although not conforming to the format of the print text, it should reflect all content of the original. It has only been edited to correct errors in the OCR process, and to update MARC field numbers where changes have been made to the MARC format. Please bring other errors to the attention of the thesaurus editor, using the information found on the main thesaurus page. [12/2005, Beth M. Russell]


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I. History

The Independent Research Libraries Association's Proposals for establishing standards for the cataloguing of rare books and specialized research materials in machine-readable form (Worcester, Mass., 1979) called for a new field to be added to machine-readable cataloguing (MARC) formats for terms indicating the physical characteristics of the material catalogued (Proposal Five), with particular reference to physical evidence for the processes of the production of printed works. In the same proposal IRLA requested that the Standards Committee of the Rare Books and Manuscripts Section of ACRL work toward developing standard terminology for use in such a field. The RBMS Standards Committee undertook the development of a thesaurus of terms, and a field for such terms (755 "Physical Characteristics Access") [now 655 “Index Term-Genre/Form”]  was authorized for all MARC formats in January 1984.

In order to expedite publication of the thesaurus, the RBMS Standards Committee decided to divide it into several separate thesauri, each treating evidence of a different aspect of book production and history. [The RBMS Standards Committee is presently reviewing drafts of a similar thesaurus of binding terms and another thesaurus covering genre/form and physical characteristics terms for graphic materials. Other topics for possible future thesauri include paper and papermaking, provenance, and type evidence. ] Two of these thesauri, containing terms for evidence of both printing and publishing practices, are presented here in combined form, the many overlapping terms reflecting the close connection and shared history of the two activities. The terms in the thesauri come from drafts of the IRLA proposals, some existing lists in rare book libraries, various reference works, and comments on drafts of the list by individuals at several institutions. Major drafts of the thesauri were prepared by former RBMS Standards Committee members Alexandra Mason (printing) and Patrick Russell (publishing).

II. Purpose and Scope

Many rare book libraries, concerned with the study of the book, maintain local files recording examples of various physical characteristics of items found in their collections. These files are used to retrieve books by physical features rather than by intellectual content. Although such files are useful for selection of materials for exhibition, for class demonstration, and for cataloguing comparison, their primary use is to assist researchers interested in studying techniques and styles of book production and distribution. Reflecting for the most part local rather than standard cataloguing practices, such files have often remained available only within individual libraries. Developed specifically for use in MARC field 755, the following thesauri provide standard terms for the retrieval of physical evidence of printing and publishing practices. Such standardization is a necessity for those institutions working in the context of shared, machine-readable cataloguing but may also prove beneficial to those maintaining in-house files.

III. Form

Terms in these two thesauri appear in a combined alphabetical list followed by separate hierarchical arrangements. Following ANSI standards (American National Standards Institute, American National Standard Guidelines for Thesaurus Construction and Use, New York, 1980), the terms are in plural natural language noun form whenever possible, and in direct order. Adjectives and prepositions have been avoided as far as possible. Although all terms are specific, an attempt has been made to include both genus (e.g., Facsimiles) and species (e.g., Pen facsimiles) of evidence in a number of cases.

Eagles Bar Pullover Hoodie Double Purple The alphabetical list contains authorized terms and cross-references for both thesauri. Scope notes follow terms thought to be obscure or ambiguous or which are to be used in a technical sense. Each term is followed by the cross-references, if any, made to and from other terms in the thesauri. Symbols used in these references are those which ANSI prescribes:

USE    leads from unused synonyms and inverted forms of the term to the term used;

UF       (used for) is the reciprocal of the USE reference and accompanies the term to which the USE reference refers;

BT       (broader term) refers from a term for a member of a class to the term for the class;

NT       (narrower term) refers from a term for a class to the term for one of its members;

RT       (related term) is used between related terms when it seems helpful to bring associated types of evidence to the user's attention.

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In the present thesauri, members of a class related to each other as narrower terms (NTs) under a common class (BT) are not related to each other as related terms (RTs). However, whenever a term for which there are narrower terms in the thesauri appears under another term as either a narrower term (NT) or a related term (RT), it is followed by the symbol “>” to indicate that it is not the narrowest concept of its class. Users should consult the entry in the alphabetical list for terms so marked to identify narrower terms.

The separate hierarchical lists (see pp. 23-28) of printing and publishing terms, furnished to provide convenient overviews, contain no cross-references, although a similar function is served by the appearance of some terms in more than one place within a hierarchy. The hierarchies contain several explanatory or gathering terms (displayed within square brackets). These terms are not authorized for use in field 655 and do not appear in the alphabetical list.

IV. Application

In a MARC record, these terms are to be entered in subfield $a ("access term") of field 655. Terms which do not appear in these or other thesauri approved for field 655 may not be used in this field. When used in a MARC record, a parenthetical qualifier must be added in $a following the term. Terms preceded by "A" in the alphabetical list receive the qualifier "(Printing)"; terms preceded by "B" receive the qualifier “(Publishing)”.  Either qualifier may be used with terms preceded by both “A” and “B”. The qualifier will aid users who may not see or know how to interpret the coding for subfield $2 (see below) and also helps clarify terms which are ambiguous when taken out of context (e.g., “Crowding” or “Justifications”).

Any term in these thesauri may be subdivided by place ($z), period ($y), or other subdivision ($y), or by any combination of these subdivisions. Each library must determine its own scheme for chronological subdivision. Indirect subdivision, as outlined in LC's Cataloging Service Bulletin 120 (1977), p. 9-11, is to be used when subdividing by place. Libraries using other subdivisions ($x) should construct these subdivisions to conform as far as possible to LC practice as defined in publications such as Library of Congress Subject Headings: A Guide to Subdivision Practice (Washington, 1981) or Eagles Bar Pullover Hoodie Double Purple Cataloging Service Bulletin

Eagles Bar Pullover Hoodie Double Purple Each field must close with a subfield $2 ("source of access term"). The Library of Congress has assigned the codes “rbpri” and “rbpub” to these thesauri.  Fields using terms preceded by “A” in the alphabetical list should close with subfield $2 “rbpri”; those preceded by “B” should end with subfield $2 “rbpub”. Codes should always correspond with the parenthetical qualifier used in subfield $a: “rbpri” with “(Printing)” and “rbpub” with (“Publishing)”.

An example of the application of a subdivided term:

655 $a Signing patterns (Printing) $z Germany $y 18th century $2 rbpri

N.B.: Subfields $a (with qualifier) and $2 are mandatory, other subfields are optional.

Field 655 is repeatable; assign as many terms as appropriate and desired to retrieve types of evidence in an item. For example, a book printed on vellum containing red initials and having a gap in the signing might have three 655s: "Vellum printings", "Printing in multiple colors at separate passes", and “Signing gaps".

Use of field Eagles Bar Pullover Hoodie Double Purple 655 is voluntary. Some libraries may want to use the field only for several of the terms; other libraries may prefer to use none. In the case of those terms linked by a genus-species relationship, some libraries may wish to use only the broader term; other libraries may prefer to assign only the narrower terms when appropriate, saving the broader term for items not covered by any narrower terms in the thesaurus. Some of the terms may apply to an entire edition of a particular work (e.g. Eighteenmo format), whereas other terms may apply only to a very few copies or even a single copy of a work (e.g., Type-body impressions). Libraries doing original cataloguing should describe as desired the physical characteristics of their own copies. Other libraries making later use of such cataloguing will need to evaluate the Eagles Bar Pullover Hoodie Double Purple 655 entries for appropriateness to their own copies.

These terms are to be used in field 655 regardless of the appearance of the same information elsewhere in the record (such as in a subject heading or in a note), their primary purpose being to provide easy retrieval of examples of physical evidence through a single source.

Eagles Bar Pullover Hoodie Double Purple The following works may prove helpful to persons needing fuller descriptions of some of the features or processes represented by terms in these thesauri:

Bowers, Fredson. Principles of Bibliographical Description. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1949.

Carter, John. ABC for Book-Collectors. London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1952 (also available in many revised English and American editions).

Gaskell, Philip. A New Introduction to Bibliography. j Stitched 99 J College Bowl Watt Badgers Rose Red Jersey GameOxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1972.

McKerrow, Ronald B. Eagles Bar Pullover Hoodie Double Purple An Introduction to Bibliography for Literary Students.Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1927, 2nd impression with corrections, 1928.

V. Revision

Eagles Bar Pullover Hoodie Double Purple The RBMS Standards Committee is responsible for the maintenance and revision of this thesaurus. It solicits suggestions for new terms, corrections, and alterations to terms, scope notes, and references. Any new term proposed should be accompanied by a scope note and references if appropriate. Any correspondence regarding this thesaurus should be addressed to

Chair, Standards Committee

Rare Books and Manuscripts Section

50 East Huron Street Chicago, IL 60611

Attention: Printing and Publishing Evidence

RBMS Standards Committee Members, 1985-1986

Anna Lou S. Ashby

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Dianne M. Chilmonczyk

Michele V. Cloonan

Eagles Bar Pullover Hoodie Double Purple Alan N. Degutis

Jackie M. Dooley

Eagles Bar Pullover Hoodie Double Purple Peter S. Graham

Rebecca R. Hayne

Paul S. Koda

Sara Shatford Layne

Hope Mayo

Elizabeth Betz Parker

Judith C. Singleton

Joseph A. Springer

John B. Thomas, III


Copyright Page

Printing and Publishing Evidence : Thesauris for Use in Rare Book and Special Collections Cataloguing

Prepared by the Bibliographic Standards Committee of the Rare Books and Manuscripts Section (ACRL/ALA)

Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries, 1986

Eagles Bar Pullover Hoodie Double Purple Published by the Association of College and Research Libraries, a division of the American Library Association, 50 East Huron Street, Chicago, IL 60611

ISBN 0-8389-7108-3

Copyright c1986 by the American Library Association. All rights reserved except those which may be granted by sections 107 and 108 of the Copyright Revision Act of 1976.

Printed in the United States of America.

The Library of Congress has assigned the following codes to these thesauri:

Printing terms (signified by "A" in the thesaurus): rbpri

Publishing terms (signified by "B" in the thesaurus): rbpub

The appropriate code must be entered in subfield $2 of field 655 when terms from these thesauri are used in that field. For terms that appear in both thesauri, i.e., are designated as both printing (A) and publishing (B) terms, the code should indicate the thesaurus intended. Thus the code in subfield $2 will correspond with the parenthetical qualifier used in $a (see Introduction). [When this text was published, these terms were to be used in subfield $2 of MARC field 755. This has been corrected throughout the text to avoid confusion.]